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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 64-68

Neonatal hypernatremic dehydration


1 Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Government Medical College, Srinagar, India
2 Department of Pediatrics, Government Medical College, Srinagar, India

Correspondence Address:
Mohd Ashraf
Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Government Medical College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


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Hypernatremic dehydration is a medical emergency which adversely affects central nervous system and kidneys, resulting in high mortality and morbidity, especially in neonates. Neonates are typically affected within the first 2 weeks of life, with those born in hot summers to primigravida mothers with insufficient lactation being particularly prone. Clinical features are usually nonspecific, including weight loss, hyperthermia, irritability, lethargy, hyperbilirubinemia, poor oral intake, oliguria, seizures, and/or shock. Restoration of vascular volume by administering 10–20 ml/kg of isotonic intravenous fluid is essential in the presence of circulatory collapse, followed by controlled slow rehydration to prevent rapid changes in serum sodium (Na). The outcome of hypernatremia in neonates largely depends on its severity, the timeliness of intervention, and the rate of fall of serum Na during the management process, for which qualitative standards are lacking. This review aims to help pediatric nephrologists, neonatologists, other clinicians, and postgraduate scholars to recognize, understand, and treat neonatal hypernatremic dehydration in lucid manner based on available evidence.


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